Annals of Urologic Oncology

All Articles

  • REVIEW  |  24 Jan 2019

    Progress in Research on Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte-Associated Antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and Bladder Cancer

    WEI-MING FANG, CHUN CHEN. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein-4 (CTLA-4) was first discovered in 1987 and confirmed to be a protein that is mainly expressed on the surface of activated lymphocytes. CTLA-4 is expressed on the surface of T cells and binds to B7 expressed on antigen presenting cells(APCs) to potentially play a role in inhibiting lymphocyte proliferation. Inhi...

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  • RESEARCH  |  23 Jan 2019

    The Role of Chronic Inflammation in Prostate Carcinogenesis: A Follow-Up Study

    WEI CHEN, LIWEI JIA, SANJAY GUPTA, GREGORY T. MACLENNAN. To investigate the role of chronic inflammation in prostatic carcinogenesis with an emphasis on cancers of grade group 2 or above. The presence/absence and extent of chronic inflammation and other relevant pathological findings were assessed using prostate needle biopsies obtained from patients with clinical parameters wit...

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  • REVIEW  |  15 Nov 2018

    Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PENG ZHANG, JAE Y. RO. The global incidence of cases of kidney cancer has increased rapidly, and a relatively high incidence of kidney cancer has been reported in developed countries such as Northern and Eastern Europe. Various factors can affect the incidence and mortality of kidney cancer, including demographic risk factors, lifestyle factors, iatrogenic risk fac...

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